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EFFECTS OF HORMONES ON REGULATION OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE
Sevinç Bakan2, Nilüfer Acar Tek1
1Gazi Üniversitesi, Beslenme ve Diyetetik, Ankara, Türkiye
2Özel Karatekin Hastanesi, Çankırı, Türkiye
Keywords: Energy expenditure, hormone, basal metabolic rate, thermogenic effect

Energy balance in humans is a dynamic process that changes daily. İmpairment of this process, a small yet significant problem, which is based on a simple balance between energy intake and energy expenditure, can lead to obesity, cachexia and related secondary diseases. Although there are many studies dealing with the effects of hormones on appetite control and energy intake, there are very limited studies on the role of the hormones on energy expenditure. The major cause of these limitations is the difficulties encountered in assessing the energy consumption. The main hormones that may be considered effective on energy expenditure and the mechanisms of action, have been investigated within the framework of the current research. Insulin regulates hyperglycaemiainduced increase in energy requirement and decreases resting energy expenditure (DEH). In general, the studies on thyroid hormones report on resting energy expenditure directly related thyroid hormone levels; however, some studies indicate that total energy expenditure is not affected by thyroid hormone levels and some of them showed a negative correlation. Effects of the irisin on glucose metabolism and brown adipose tissue for the treatment of obesity and diabetes are hopeful. Estrogen is important for the energy metabolism due to effects on both white, and brown adipose tissue in women. High cortisol levels increase carbohydrate intake and energy expenditure slows down. The stimulation of gluconeogenesis by adrenaline, has positive effects on appetite and increases the brown adiposities by stimulation of UCP1. The effect of hormones on energy expenditure, the roles in the treatment of diseases associated with energy metabolism, dose and duration and possible interactions are questions that need clarification within current research.